You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. Don’t just keep repeating “Smith says.” There is a wide choice of such verbs in English. Use a dictionary to check that you have chosen a verb with the nuance you intend.
Here are some grammatical patterns to follow in using these verbs: Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
|discover||Mocha Choo Suede Flats Jimmy Dare doubt||emphasize||explain||find|
|object||observe||point out||prove||Jimmy Mocha Dare Suede Choo Flats reveal|
- Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
- Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
- Singh infers that both states are essential.
Note that these verbs all differ in meaning-they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the verb argue in sample sentence (a) indicates your judgement that the author’s conclusion is based on evidence and reasoning, but that other conclusions might be possible. The verb Mocha Suede Choo Jimmy Dare Flats demonstrate in sentence (b) indicates your judgement that the researchers’ evidence and reasoning are so convincing that no other conclusion is possible.
Beware of using the verbs discuss or express followed by that. For example, it is incorrect to write, “The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.” You can, however, write the following: “The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.” N.B.: Verbs in this category may also appear in a subordinate clause beginning with As:
- Flats Suede Choo Mocha Jimmy Dare As Da Souza arguesKingston Zoe Heel Fringe Rachel Mules Suede Brown Slides Block XdRPPtnYw, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.
- Flats Jimmy Suede Mocha Dare Choo As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
|applaud||blame||Jimmy Flats Suede Mocha Choo Dare censure||criticize||disparage|
- Smith criticized Jones forSummer Ferragamo Salvatore Tan Slides Mules YZHqHC his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).
- Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.
- Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
|appraise||assess||characterize||Jimmy Mocha Flats Dare Choo Suede class||classify|
- Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.
- Smith Mocha Flats Suede Choo Jimmy Dare identifies the open window Jimmy Choo Dare Suede Mocha Flats as a source of contamination.
- Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.
Revised by Rebecca Smollett, Margaret Procter, and Jerry Plotnick.