You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. Don’t just keep repeating “Smith says.” There is a wide choice of such verbs in English. Use a dictionary to check that you have chosen a verb with the nuance you intend.
Here are some grammatical patterns to follow in using these verbs: Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
|discover||flat Black Black Carvela 'Ace' Carvela sandals doubt||emphasize||explain||find|
|object||observe||point out||prove||Carvela sandals flat Black Carvela Black 'Ace' reveal|
- Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
- Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
- Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
- Singh infers that both states are essential.
Note that these verbs all differ in meaning-they cannot be used interchangeably. For example, the verb argue in sample sentence (a) indicates your judgement that the author’s conclusion is based on evidence and reasoning, but that other conclusions might be possible. The verb Carvela Carvela flat Black 'Ace' sandals Black demonstrate in sentence (b) indicates your judgement that the researchers’ evidence and reasoning are so convincing that no other conclusion is possible.
Beware of using the verbs discuss or express followed by that. For example, it is incorrect to write, “The reviewer expressed that the movie is not worth seeing.” You can, however, write the following: “The reviewer expressed the view that the movie is not worth seeing.” N.B.: Verbs in this category may also appear in a subordinate clause beginning with As:
- Carvela Black Carvela flat 'Ace' Black sandals As Da Souza arguesshoes Comfort Carvela court Navy 'Arabella' q6nwUX, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.
- Carvela Black Black flat 'Ace' Carvela sandals As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
|applaud||blame||Black Black 'Ace' sandals Carvela Carvela flat censure||criticize||disparage|
- Smith criticized Jones forBlack 'Suzy' Comfort sandals high Carvela heel 5qgxf4Bw his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).
- Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.
- Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
|appraise||assess||characterize||Black flat Black Carvela 'Ace' sandals Carvela class||classify|
- Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.
- Smith Carvela Black Carvela Black 'Ace' flat sandals identifies the open window Black 'Ace' Black Carvela Carvela sandals flat as a source of contamination.
- Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.
Revised by Rebecca Smollett, Margaret Procter, and Jerry Plotnick.